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Guidelines and Examples for Citing Electronic Resources

The publishing industry has continuously shifted and evolved in recent years, largely due to the emergence and integration of the internet and a diverse range of electronic resources. This has created new challenges for citation styles, and basic guidelines have now emerged in order to enable writers to document these new source types in their written work. The ASA style has based its guidelines for citing e-resources on The Chicago Manual of Style; find more information here.

Across all sociological disciplines, writers and researchers draw from a huge variety of online source types to support their own ideas; from websites and e-zines, to blogs, electronic mailing lists, machine-readable data files (MRDF), CD-ROM, DVD, and social media channels. There are a few points to bear in mind when citing e-resources:

  • Include all of the basic elements of source information in the citation so that the reader can access the material with ease

  • Sources that are unlikely to change (e.g. those in PDF or TIFF form, those accessed through JSTOR, exact replicas of the print version) should be cited in print-form

  • Ensure that the source you are using will be accessible to your reader (e.g., look out for subscription based databases, access time limits and legal restrictions)

  • Whenever possible include the author’s name, document title, date of publication (or retrieval date), and an address (e.g., URL or DOI)

How do I Use a URL to Cite a Source?

The URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is crucial for locating an online document. However, websites can be regularly modified, updated, redesigned, or even removed, so it is crucial that you follow these steps when including a URL in your ASA citations.

  • Be sure to carefully check the spelling of a URL so that the source is accurately identified

  • Avoid citing a source with a URL that no longer exists

  • Do not type the URL address; copy and paste it directly from your browser into your work

  • Print and save the data obtained from a URL in case the URL is modified and the information is lost

  • If the URL has expired and you still need to cite the source, cite it as an unpublished paper in an archived collection

Keep reading for a detailed list of examples that show you how best to cite electronic sources.

E-Books.

  • If an e-book was consulted online, omit page numbers and include the URL and date of access

  • If an e-book is available in more than one format, other formats may be listed as well - end the citation with: (Also available at: [insert URL])

Young, T. R. 1989. Crime and Social Justice: Theory and Policy for the 21st Century. Red Feather Institute. Retrieved June 22, 2010 (http://uwacadweb.uwyo.edu/Red_FEATHER/crime/001contents.html).

Printed edition of a book accessed through an online library.

Daniels, John. 2010. Apathetic College Students in America. Middletown, IL: University of Middletown Press. Retrieved April 6, 2011 (http://site.ebrary.com/lib/collegestudies/docDetail.action?docID=1010101010).

Online periodicals available in print & online form.

Scott, Lionel D., Jr., and Laura E. House. 2005. “Relationship of Distress and Perceived Control to Coping with Perceived Racial Discrimination among Black Youth.” Journal of Black Psychology 31(3):254-72.

Journal articles (e-journals) with Digital Object Identifier (DOI).

  • A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned to a publication or other unit of intellectual property. As a digital identifier it provides a means of looking up the current location of the source on the internet

  • When a DOI is included, it should be cut and pasted directly from the article

Persell, Caroline Hodges, Kathryn M. Pfeiffer, and Ali Syed. 2008. “How Sociological Leaders Teach: Some Key Principles.” Teaching Sociology 36(2):108-24. doi:10.1177/0092055X0803600202.

Websites.

  • As a general rule, if the website contains data or evidence essential to a point being addressed in the manuscript, it should be formally cited with the URL and date of access

Document retrieved from an institution with a known location.

Text: (ASA 2006)

Citation: American Sociological Association. 2006. “Status Committees.” Washington, DC: American Sociological Association. Retrieved July 11, 2010 (http://www.asanet.org/about/committes.cfm).

Document retrieved from a corporate website (unknown location).

Text: (IBM 2009)

Citation: IBM. 2009. “2009 Annual Report.” Retrieved July 25, 2014 (http://www.ibm.com/annualreport/2009/2009_ibm_annual.pdf).

Social Media Sources.

  • When referring to a particular social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) posting within the text, it should be accompanied by a footnote in the main body of text rather than included in the reference list

  • The footnote must include the page’s title, date accessed, and the URL

Text: The American Sociological Association mentioned the meeting directly on its Facebook page.1

Footnote: 1. American Sociological Association’s Facebook page, accessed June 6, 2014, http://www.facebook.com/AmericanSociologicalAssociation/posts/10154176262000165.

Examples of how to cite a web log entry (also known as “blogs”), e-mail message, items in online databases, machine-readable data files and audiovisual materials (e.g., CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, podcast, PowerPoint presentation and sound recordings etc.) can be found in Section 5: Guidelines for Using Electronic Resources in the 5th edition of the ASA Style Guide.

MLA is known as the easiest referencing style. It is usually used at the high school or college level. It was established by the Modern Language Association in order to structure papers. It is the first citation style students meet on their life way. Despite MLA is simple to master, this convenient MLA format citation website will do the whole job for you.

Application Area of in Text Citation MLA Website

Our service is not created to write or offer complete essays. We have designed this user-friendly MLA citation website in order to assist English-speaking students in formatting their final drafts before submission. We prevent students from receiving lower grades due to improper formatting. Tutors are usually very strict when evaluating this criterion.

If you are asked to apply MLA referencing style to your essay or research paper, you’ve got lucky! First, this style is very simple to understand. Second, there is no need to memorize its rules with new in text citation MLA website from our specialists!

MLA is widely used to cite various academic and scientific sources. It is usually met in the field of humanitarian sciences. However, it does not mean your physics or biology teacher cannot ask to apply this specific style. MLA is also frequently used to format different documents. The best thing about MLA is that you don’t need to add title page, table of contents, abstract, outline, and else. Frankly speaking, MLA stands for the essay itself and works cited. Works cited page refers to bibliography. Students also have to add their last names in the upper-right corner of each page. Only one heading is required. So, that’s basically it.

Who Needs MLA?

Still, we decided to come up with online MLA citation for websites to do the job for each student automatically. Due to the fact this referencing style is used in almost all English-speaking countries, mostly British, American, Canadian, and Australian students need it. Except for the students, the authors of scientific articles, university professors, school and college teachers, and some professionals from various writing areas require the knowledge of MLA formatting. Usually, the style is applied to the works of Literature, English Language, History, Research on Foreign Languages, Sociology, Psychology, Philosophy, and other related subjects.

Our MLA website citation service was developed to help you with referencing Comparative Analysis, Literature Critique, Literature Review, Media Research, Essay, Research Paper, Description Paper, Reflective Essay, etc. as you can see, a lot of people demand service like this one for a variety of purposes. Anyway, our website will prevent you from falling into the trap.

Free and Accurate MLA Format Citation Website

Please mind that our online generator is all-time updating. MLA citation website has to be upgraded due to the fact MLA manual is sometimes refreshed. New standards appear, so it is important to watch all the trends. Every student can rely on our service completely as it is run by the top universities. Some of them establish MLA, APA, Chicago, and Harvard manuals on a regular basis. If you don’t want to waste hours on reading MLA manuals and guides, observing the samples of papers, in-text citations, footnotes, or Works Cited pages, just go directly to our online generator.

Is this MLA in text citation website worth using? Just think about it: there are so many sources to include: videos, research papers, magazine or newspaper articles, journals, textbooks, books, and more. are you sure you won’t get stuck with any of them? You might confuse the way each source have to be cited. Besides, it is crucial to remember which data should be included in Bibliography. In-text citations also look differently for different formats and sources.

Automatic generator does not confuse referencing styles. It is programmed to help every student. Our generator will locate all sources in alphabetical order. It will arrange everything in a correct way even if the authors for some sources remain unknown. The website will automatically capitalize all required letters. All punctuation marks will be put where needed. Finally, there is no need to worry about paragraphs formatting.

Bibliography Peculiarities in MLA

As it was already mentioned, Reference Page or Bibliography is called Works Cited in MLA paper. It is usually applied to school or college essays. This final page appears as a comprehensive scroll of all the sources used to complete the assignment. It means you should involve all sources that helped you to come up with the final version of your essay. In-text citations directly contribute to your work, but you cannot leave them without proper formatting and author’s name along with the page. Otherwise, it will be considered plagiarism. All modern tutors scan every paper to check the uniqueness, so there is no way to trick them. Don’t risk your grade by adding quotes correctly! Every entry must refer to the short parenthetical citations in the body of your paper. The role of in-text citation is to make it possible for your audience to identify the full source in the works cited. For more than one-line entries, indent the subsequent line (so-called ‘hanging indentation’).

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