El Teocalli De Cholula Analysis Essay

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Vivo en el porvenir: como un espectro.

José María Heredia

Cholula, México.— Nadie sabe por qué llegó hasta allí, ni cómo. José María Heredia solo nos dice que se sentó en lo alto de la pirámide en el atardecer y que desde ese lugar contempló la ciudad abierta sobre el valle del Anáhuac, erizada de torres y campanarios coloniales que fueron levantados con las piedras de los templos toltecas. La voz melancólica del poeta adolescente —no había cumplido los 17 años— exploró entonces el misterio del tiempo efímero y de la vanidad humana. Pueblos, reyes, dictadores, sacerdotes horribles han pasado y aunque el volcán Popocatepetl resistió el embate de los siglos y de la muerte, no será para siempre: Todo perece/ por ley universal. Aun este mundo/ tan bello y tan brillante que habitamos,/ es el cadáver pálido y deforme/ de otro mundo que fue...

En el Teocalli de Cholula, escrito por Heredia en 1820, dos meses después de la muerte de su padre y maestro, es considerado el precursor de los grandes cantos románticos de Hispanoamérica. En el ensayo que siguió a La novela de mi vida, donde reconstruye a través de la ficción la obra y la época del poeta cubano, Leonardo Padura sintetiza los valores de estos versos: «Su reflexión histórica, su alegato contra la superstición y la tiranía, su desprecio por los horrores que puede cometer el poder, además de la notable capacidad de integrar la naturaleza a los estados anímicos y a la necesidad expresiva del poeta, ya advierten claramente la estatura lírica, de abierta filiación romántica, de José María Heredia».

Lo extraordinario es que, casi dos siglos después, este poema nos devuelve a un Heredia contemporáneo. Si nos quedaba alguna duda, porque muchos de sus versos se sienten ahora más verbosos y exclamativos que en su tiempo, se disipó leyéndolos desde la altura de la pirámide de Cholula, que tiene dimensiones mayores a la pirámide del Sol, de Teotihuacán, con aproximadamente 65 metros de altura y 452 por cada lado, con un volumen de 4,5 millones de metros cúbicos.

Desde la distancia parece una montaña común y corriente, coronada por una iglesia católica para la Virgen de los Remedios, graciosamente delineada en tonos blancos y naranjas. En realidad es un Teocalli —palabra náhuatl que significa «casa de Dios»— consagrado al Dios de la lluvia, Tláloc, que oculta siete pirámides superpuestas durante siglos y luego sepultada voluntariamente por los indígenas, mucho antes de la llegada de Hernán Cortés, que en estos mismos predios asesinó, en dos horas de terrible matanza, a más de 6 000 personas con el auxilio de la Malinche.

Desde la privilegiada vista panorámica que ofrece el Teocalli, Heredia no miraba solo a esta ciudad, sino al mundo. Cholula, como el planeta que habitamos, tenía y tiene una suerte de historia oculta y de ocultaciones, de muertes y de resurrecciones que cayeron de golpe sobre la sensibilidad del poeta: Un largo sueño/ de glorias engolfadas y perdidas/ en la profunda noche de los tiempos,/ descendió sobre mí, dice.

El tiempo hizo justicia a las ensoñaciones de Heredia. El pasado ha regresado a la actualidad. Con las excavaciones de los túneles internos, salió a la superficie el Tlamachihualtépetl, que fue el primer nombre de Cholula y significa «cerro hecho a mano». Reapareció la extraordinaria acústica —si aplaudimos el eco nos devuelve el grito del quetzal— y la exacta orientación de la pirámide, que se desvía 26 grados Este a Sur, en dirección a la salida del Sol durante el solsticio de invierno, y 26 grados Oeste a Norte, hacia la puesta del Sol en el solsticio de verano. Surgieron las decoraciones policromadas, como el mural de Los bebedores de pulque, y dibujos recurrentes de «insectos» que dan la impresión de ser cráneos humanos y que se despliegan de manera horizontal, como en las decoraciones del Templo de la Serpiente Emplumada de Teotihuacán.

El saqueo y la destrucción convirtieron en cenizas y ruinas casi todo el legado indígena de Cholula. La ciudad colonial misma se construyó con las piedras de la arquitectura anterior, «ejemplo ignominioso de la demencia y el furor humano» que refieren los versos heredianos y que prefiguran lo que vendría después, porque la urbe moderna se levantó, con igual furia destructiva, sobre el legado hispano. Lo paradójico es que en Cholula, una ciudad habitada de manera continua durante 2 500 años, se haya mantenido hasta nuestros días aquello que los conquistadores se propusieron arrasar a su llegada en 1519: que nadie conociera ni valorara el pasado.

Sin embargo, duele muchísimo que ya no está el Popocatepetl, el «gigante del Anáhuac», la criatura a la que el vuelo/ de las edades rápidas no imprime/ alguna huella en tu nevada frente. Sus glaciales se han reducido un 22 por ciento en las últimas tres décadas. La contaminación ha puesto entre el Teocalli de Cholula y el volcán una densa pantalla de cielo sucio que no lo deja ver. Puede que la historia, testaruda, regrese, pero vale preguntarle lo que Heredia al viejo Popo: ¿Y tú eterno serás?


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