A crime is a serious offense against the public law (Webster Dictionary), but not all serious crimes have a clear victim. Victimless crimes, legal offenses to which all parties consent and no parties are injured, however, account for 86% of the Federal Prison population (Libertarian News). For the reason that the illegal activity is consensually entered into, victimless crimes are often called consensual crimes. Parties consensually entering a crime, or agreeing to enter, may not be considered victims in the eyes of the law nor other parties, but may contribute to other problems and vices. Even though victimless crimes may violate some constitutional rights, prohibiting them will limit the economic costs, the health issues brought upon the people, and all the criminalization occurring around the world. Such cases, where society pays as a whole, deserve punishment.
Gambling, prostitution, homosexual acts, illegal substances like marijuana, and pornography are among the lists of victimless crimes. In any victimless crime, taking pornography for example, costs the society greatly economically. According to (www.halexandria.org), lots of money is spent for the protection of others in such crimes. In order to keep society safe, punishing people for these crimes cost over fifty billion dollars. Prohibiting the consensual crimes however, will limit and prevent the even greater economic costs to occur. Victimless crimes can in fact take even more billions of dollars out of people’s pockets. Worldwide pornography, with 97.06 billion dollars in revenue for 2006 (Enough is Enough), is said to be a business that takes advantage of the people.
The fact that the goods and services Mejia 2 are greatly desired ensures a strong demand that maintains high prices. Accounting the cost of the pornography business and the other victimless crimes can certainly outweigh the fifty billion dollars that cost to imprison the perpetrators.
More over just the economic costs, the health concerns in society, due to victimless crimes, can actually have real “victims.” Participants in such crimes do not only hurt themselves. The offender’s families may be hurt, and victimless crimes could even lead to other problems where there are unwilling victims. Dealing with pornography, it could possibly lead to the spread of aids and other sexual transmitted diseases. With some of the nation’s largest pornography producers, any disease has the potential to spread quickly, according to (Aids Healthcare Foundation). This could all result in more expensive medical bills which could increase insurance costs (Veneziano). Victimless crimes may start as something small, but could potentially get worst. Therefore, prohibiting such crimes is a necessary step to a safer and healthier society.
Undercriminalization, the failure to prohibit some behavior that arguably should be prohibited (Introduction to Criminal Justice), arises a lot in victimless crime cases, eventually leading to even more crimes. Victimless crimes provide revenue for greater organized crimes. Victimless crimes also provide goods and services for which there is high demand, thus contributing to the serious violent crime rates. Because of the strong demand, large numbers of citizens are driven into association with the criminal elements who supply these goods and services. There is a danger that such citizens will come to view themselves as criminals, cooperating less with law enforcement generally, and are more likely to be drawn into other forms of crime (www.reference.com).
Also, some people may not be satisfied and will go out and look for other ways to make more profit. In such crimes, like pornography, instead of just making adult pornography, people might go out and try to make child pornography which is illegal. Studies show that child pornography is one of the fastest growing businesses online, and the content is Mejia 3 becoming much worse and much more dangerous. Prohibiting these victimless crimes will definitely improve our society and limit criminalization around the world.
On the other hand, victimless crimes are argued and debated to not be prohibited by law because they are violating the constitutional rights of the citizens. These violations include the constitutional right that all citizens have which is to be able to do as they please as long as not interfering with others¸ and the fact that victimless crimes lead to overcriminalization, the prohibition of criminal law of some behaviors that arguable should not be prohibited (Introduction to Criminal Justice). A small number of studies show that the public find these acts less serious than other types of crimes, but what the public does not realize is that society is still affected even though it may not occur directly (reference.com). Yes, citizens do have such rights, but as those studies show these consensual acts can result in negative consequences that might not be immediately apparent.
Prohibiting the victimless crimes will limit the economic costs, the health issues, and all the criminalization around the world. Not having a direct victim does not conclude that there is no victim at all. Instead of just letting it be and causing such harms to society, people consenting to such crimes, should deserve punishment. Ultimately, victimless crime acts should be prohibited by criminal law because they truly have ‘victims.’
Bohm, Robert and Keith Haley. Introduction to Criminal Justice. Woodland Hills, CA;Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 2002. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, 2004. Print Websites
“Libertarian News.” Libertarian News. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Dec. 2013. . “More Porn HIV Cases Disclosed.” AIDS Healthcare Foundation RSS2. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2013. . “Statistics.” Enough Is Enough: Protecting Our Children Online. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2013. . Veneziano, Carol A., Ph.D. “Victimless Crimes.” Southeast Missouri State University, n.d. Web. 03 Dec. 2013. . “Victimless Crimes.”Halexandria.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2013. .
“Victimless Crimes.” Reference.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2013.
...Crime is the result of: | | Steffanie Washington | 10/11/2012 | Crime is the result of both, society and an individual’s decision to commit a crime. It is surely the case that we cannot address crime in only one way. People make conscious choices when engaging in criminal behavior. Yet, these choices are, to some extent, driven by sociological reality and conditions that surround individuals. I don't believe that all crime is committed in a premeditated manner. I think that some may be at will, or spontaneously. I do also believe that crime can be part of who we are as people. I think that a lot of criminals start off with a small crime and end up in situations to commit bigger crimes. Don’t get me wrong, I do believe we are all responsible for our own actions but I don’t think people just wake up one day and decide to commit a crime. There is something that triggers that person, whether it’s their up bring, poverty, bullying, neglect, abuse, peer pressure, drugs, media, and so much more. When someone is taught to hate, have no remorse for anyone, grow up around crime and drugs, that’s all they know. I feel that some criminals have not been taught the difference between ‘right and wrong.’ There are a lot of people that are given many opportunities in life, but what about those who have not been given the same opportunities. There are a lot of people that are not given a chance in life and I believe that can lead someone to commit a crime. I still believe......
Words: 318 - Pages: 2
Public Order Crimes
... 1. What are public order crimes, and how are they different from violent and property crimes? Explain how moral entrepreneurship affects the public perception of morality and thus the creation of new "public order crimes." Answer: Public order crimes are crimes against the public consensus of morality. Sometimes public order crimes are called victimless crimes, as there is no clear victim that can be identified. A crime against the public order is quite different than a crime against a person. Violent and property crimes are a direct victimization against a person. The victim has been affected by violence and the act has caused a loss of something of value. Moral entrepreneurs can be individuals or may belong to a group, or formal organization that takes on the responsibility of persuading society to develop or to enforce new rules that are consistent with its own ardently held moral beliefs. They tend to be rule creators by crusading for the passage of rules, laws, and policies against behaviors they find abhorrent or as rule enforcers by administering and implementing them. Although these are different and distinct roles, the effect of moral entrepreneurship, according to Howard Becker who coined the term, is the formation of a new class of outsiders whose behavior now violates these newly minted regulations and therefore is subject to the degrading label of “deviant.” 2. Why are public order crimes called "victimless crimes?" Take either drug abuse or......
Words: 638 - Pages: 3
...First, I never really realized the many debates and issues America really has until this course. Some issues may seem like common sense on how to solve the problem but not everyone may be happy with every result because of their “beliefs” moral and values. I know that wearing seat beats is state regulated. The government can legally require us to wear a seat belt. Especially, if their major concern is about cutting cost and saving the lives of others. Many feel that when we allow the government to enforce these kinds of laws, we are surrendering our ability to think and act for ourselves. To be honest we have some people that seem to have no brain and this is why such laws have to be in place. It may not be fair and it may infringe on our rights a bit but it is here to balance things. Most of the time it is not very easy to determine in specific cases the right thing to do and no solutions seem obviously correct. As adults, we have experienced many situations to where we are able to decide whether we would like to follow particular rules, but for children it is undetermined in which case it is safe to let some adults decide for them. So rules like having child restraint are put into place for them so that they are protected in every measure. I know that my children will jump in the car without putting a seat belt on and I have to remind them to put it on because when they are in the back seat. I prefer them to be in a car seat with their seat belt on for my own safety reason......
Words: 339 - Pages: 2
Crime and Deviance
...Deviance The study of deviance is the basis for criminology in sociology—the study of crime and its effects on society. nDeviance refers to the socially disapproved violations of important norms and expectations of a society. nWho is deviant differs from one culture to another. nStigma is the mark of deviance (the Scarlet Letter). n 5/17/2002 1 Social control n n Social controls are sanctions which try to keep people from deviance. Internal social controls are behaviors and attitudes socialized into the individual to protect them from deviance. External controls are society’s mechanisms like the law and the police. Since everyone breaks social rules and norms, the sociology of deviance usually refers to those who do it big-time. 2 5/17/2002 Theories of deviance Who becomes deviant? Why do they do it? 5/17/2002 3 Labeling theory n Labeling theory: a person becomes deviant when they get labeled as such. Getting a deviant identity means distinguishing between primary and secondary deviance. Primary deviance is where most people do something deviant but it is not discovered; secondary deviance is where a person takes on the identity of a deviant and may be thrust into a “deviant career.” Labeling theory fails to explain when being labeled deviant can jolt someone out of becoming a career deviant. Deviants are seen here as helpless victims rather than bad guys 4 5/17/2002 Transmission theory n 5/17/2002 Cultural transmission......
Words: 973 - Pages: 4
...Criminal Justice The act of an individual or individuals when committing a crime and how a society deals with those individuals has changed over time. Crime is a conduct or violation of the criminal to break the laws for which there is no acceptable justification or excuse. Society is often viewed by its criminal element and how the people deal with punishment and rehabilitation of the criminal. There are five goals of the criminal justice system deterrence, incapacitation, retribution, rehabilitation, restoration. In a CJi Interactive Multi-Media slide on University of Phoenix website it described, “These five criminal justice goals are not mutually exclusive. They are really rather like philosophical perspectives from which a community or agency responds to criminal behavior. (Interactive) The criminal justice system has three branches, those branches are police, courts and correction departments, each are an integral part of the American Justice System. The police work in an ever changing environment however in a report on the challenges of crime in a free society the police officers job was described as “the manner in which a policeman works is influenced by practical matters: the legal strength of the available evidence, the willingness of victims to press charges and of witnesses to testify, the temper of the community, the time and information at the policeman's disposal. Much is at stake in how the policeman exercises this discretion and if he judges conduct not......
Words: 1030 - Pages: 5
Prostitution and Drug Abuse: Victimless?
...The topic of prostitution and drug use has been an ongoing battle over the decriminalization of these so called victimless crimes. They are both correlated to sociological factors, such as, race, gender, socioeconomic standing and age, which, increases the likelihood of becoming involved in prostitution and illegal drug use. They are correlated to each other because prostitution is a means of income to support drug use and drug use is used to make a prostitutes work “bearable”. This paper will discuss in detail, prostitution and illicit drug use, including the contributions of sociological variables. Furthermore, it will distinguish whether the two are truly victimless crimes. Finally, it will include a personal opinion regarding the decriminalization of drug abuse and prostitution. Prostitution is associated with sexual services for hire. Lyn Stankiewicz Murphy defined prostitution as “a behaviour that involves the exchange of sexual services for economic compensation in the form of drugs, money, or needed resources” (2010, p.775). There are several types of prostitutes that are based on their status. From lowest status to highest, they are: streetwalkers, bar prostitutes, house prostitutes, massage-parlour prostitutes and escort service prostitutes. Streetwalkers are those who solicit their availability on the streets and are most often ran by pimps. Bar prostitutes work in bars and lounges, while house prostitutes “operate illegally and on a small scale” and are......
Words: 1655 - Pages: 7
Media and Crime
...MEDIA AND CRIME Introduction -With the growing urbanization (παγκοσμιοποίηση) it is necessary to rely on media to find out what has been happening in the world. As in the majority few people are vi ctims of serious crime, images of offending are formed in the majority of the people from the mass media! (MME) : newspapers, books, magazines, TV, radio, etc… Does Media have Legal Constraints? (Περιορισμοί)? Τhere is a difference between: • Broadcasting (μετάδωση): Section 6 of Broadcasting Acts requires impartiality (αντικειμενικότητα) in the reporting of news and political matters • But in the Press (εφημερίδα) there is no such a legal obligation! Written media can published more/less what it wants subject to the Law of Libel (δυσφήμιση) and some specific prohibitions. (example: Official Secret Act which prohibits press from publishing sensitive informations. Sources of the media’s information on crime • Police (The police still provide the bulk of the material in crime reporters. Because of their big influence manipulation (χειρισμός) of the media has now become a big part in policing!) • Home Office (Press Office) • The Legal Profession • The Prison Officer’s Association • Academics Selection of Crime News The journalist and editor play the central role as to how a story is formulated and presented in a newspaper! They select their stories in a subjective basis in accordance with the newspaper agenda! In his book “Law and Order News” Steve Ghibnall......
Words: 1725 - Pages: 7
...are used to measure crime in the United States? The U.S. Department of Justice administers two statistical programs to measure the magnitude, nature, and impact of crime in the Nation: the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). Each of these programs produces valuable information about aspects of the Nation’s crime problem. Because the UCR and NCVS programs are conducted for different purposes, use different methods, and focus on somewhat different aspects of crime, the information they produce together provides a more comprehensive panorama of the Nation’s crime problem than either could produce alone. What are crime rates, arrest rates, clearance rates, and recidivism rates? Recidivism is measured by criminal acts that resulted in the rearrested, reconviction, or return to prison with or without a new sentence during a three-year period following the prisoner's release. Crime Rates several methods for measuring crime exist, including household surveys, hospital or insurance records, and compilations by police and similar law enforcement agencies. Typically official crime statistics are the latter, but some offences are likely to go unreported to the police. Public surveys are sometimes conducted to estimate the amount of crime not reported to police. Such surveys are usually more reliable for assessing trends. Public surveys rarely encompass all crime, rarely procure statistics useful for local crime prevention,......
Words: 329 - Pages: 2
...Kathryn Franklin 12/8/2012 Criminal Law Victimless Crimes In our society there are many different types of crimes. There are crimes, in which victims are involved such as assault and battery, armed robbery, and murder. Then there are crimes known as victimless crimes. Victimless crimes are crimes in which victims aren’t involved such as prostitution, drug abuse, and white collar crimes. What constitutes a victim though? The exact definition of victim is, a person harmed, injured, or killed as a result of a crime, accident, or other event or action. Taking this in, is victimless crimes truly victimless? In my eyes, no they aren’t. Throughout this paper I will give my point of view of why victimless crimes are not truly victimless. The rate of the abuse of drugs is constantly rising. “In 2010, an estimated 22.6 million Americans aged 12 or older, or 8.9 percent of the population, had used an illicit drug or abused a psychotherapeutic medication (such as a pain reliever, stimulant, or tranquilizer) in the past month. This is up from 8.3 percent in 2002. The increase mostly reflects a recent rise in the use of marijuana, the most commonly used illicit drug” (National Institute on Drugs). Drug abuse kills about 200,000 people worldwide each year, according to a new United Nations (UN) report. These people who have died from some type of abuse of a drug does not include in the numbers of people who have died from the violence of drugs. Looking at the war on drugs......
Words: 1518 - Pages: 7
...Crime and Society Throughout history the study of crime has existed. There are a variety of crimes that exists today and as technology advances so does crimes. In order to combat these crimes law enforcement has came up with a variety of techniques. There are a variety of sources as to why people commit these crimes, such as: society, culture, and economics. The criminal justice system has came up with a variety of punishments so that the offender can learn his lesson and become a productive member of society by deterrence, incapacitation, retribution and rehabilitation. In order to combat crime law enforcement must remain ethical and work alongside of society to put a stop to crime. Through the history of social origins of social control have existed and without them we would have chaos. Religion has played a role on how laws were written as most laws are based on morals, ethics, and values. “The Ten Commandments or Decalogue (1200 B.C.), an important influence on American criminal law, prohibits murder, theft, and perjury” (Conklin, 2007, p. 6). English common law is another system that laws in the United States base most of their laws on. Today in states such as California only obey by written law, which are known as statutes. Crimes have evolved throughout time as technology advances. There are a variety of crimes that exists today such as: violent crimes, crimes against children, crimes against elders, property crimes, animal crimes, victimless crimes,......
Words: 753 - Pages: 4
...Personal Perception of Organized Crime Shawn Ramsey CJA/384 Criminal Organizations Damian Torres April 14, 2014 Criminal Organizations Organized crime is often described similarity by groups like government, the press and popular opinion. This similar definition is described through the knowledge people have gained from pop-culture movies, television shows, magazines, novels and stories from newspaper articles. “It is extremely rare in today's society that someone who has an opinion on organized crime, which is almost everyone, has gained this opinion through first-hand experience” (Lyman, M. D., & Potter, G. W. 2007). The problem with this narrow view of organized crime is that it fails to encompass the real issues/problems that truly define organized crime, therefore not allowing us as a society to fix the problems of and associated with organized crime. Stereotypes that have been made about organized crime through these pop-culture icons must be addressed and challenged by researchers as they aim to fix the definition of organized crime in the minds of the public, press, and government. Fixing society's understanding of organized crime is, as we have learned, the first and possibly most important step in controlling organized crime in our society. “The view of organized crime including acts such as, international drug smuggling, for example, is organized crime often being described as a; highly structured and organized operation with vertical lines of......
Words: 1125 - Pages: 5
Social Inequality and Crime
...functionalism, conflict, feminist, and social interactionism, the conflict perspective can explain why women, African-Americans, youth, and low-income people have the highest rates of violent crime victimization and exploitation. For instance, a result of criminalization of “victimless crimes” such as prostitution is one less way for people to make money. Some critics even believe it’s a waste to punish perpetrators of victimless crimes. The criminalization of victimless crimes can be seen as a way for people in power to remain in power; thus putting women and low-income people at a disadvantage. Victimless crimes also can demonstrate another argument of the conflict perspective; crime is a way to define and perceive one’s social status. How one is treated by law enforcement is a way for society to view and label a person. Because the law deems drug use, gambling, and other mala prohibit as “crimes,” people who partake those activities can be seen as low-lives, thugs, inappropriate, or other negative things. They are also controllable by the power elite, and it can be said that those in power create policies and laws in order to preserve their own power. Conflict creates and maintains group solidarity by defining and utilizing boundaries between groups; when society defines a crime and judges the people who commit them, the lines are drawn and power is upheld by those who make the labels. However, some people are forced to do these things because of low finances and......
Words: 468 - Pages: 2
...Controlling Organized Crime Paper LaShanda McMahon 1/26/15 CJA/384 Professor Faggione Controlling Organized Crime Paper Crime is a part of every type of society. It would be naïve to believe that a society could completely rid itself of crime, as long as there are people in the world crimes will be commited. Crime is based on the perception and the actions of individuals. Some see their actions as good and some see them as bad. The problem with this is that sometimes the perception of those committing negative acts that society views as crimes do not see their actions as criminal. Crime is based on the actions of the individuals and depending upon the moral statutes that the society has brought upon them the society deems what is criminal by what they perceive and have implemented as illegal. In this paper an attempt to identify the problems, which are obtainable, and the innumerable associations recognized through organized crime will be established. We will attempt to designate the legitimate boundaries correlated with contesting organized crime, involving an analysis of the general national laws and stratagems that sustenance this exertion. We will also attempt to propose a convincing clarification regarding controlled organized crime by examining and assessing the efficiency of organized crime examinations. Although most issues related to social control or moral regulation have a political aspect to them, discussions related to ‘organized crime’ are......
Words: 1072 - Pages: 5
...Jury Selection Process Paper Amber Spencer CJS/221 August 24, 2015 Stephen Humphries The disparity in the jury selection process has been present in the United States for centuries. The jury is a very important part of the justice system, even though many cases are settled by the plea deal and never make it in front of a jury. The cases that seem to end up in front of a jury are very high-profile crimes that have long prison sentences or even the death penalty on the table. What the jury was developed for was to provide "the criminal defendant's fundamental protection of life and liberty against race and color prejudice" (McCleskey v. Kemp pg. 279). In the early 1800's only white men were allowed to serve on a jury. In 1880 in the case of Strauder v. West Virginia, the supreme court found that it was violating a clause under the Fourteenth Amendment by excluding African-Americans from the jury pools because of their color alone was causing a great deal of harm to the African American population. In the case of Neal v. Delaware, which occurred only a few years after Strauder v. West Virginia. The courts stated that they were not allowing African Americans to the Jury pool because they were not meeting the criteria of intelligence, moral integrity, and experience. The same issues arise for any Hispanic personal as well. Even though they technically fell under the same guidelines as the Struater v. West Virginia by violating the fourteenth amendment by not allowing......
Words: 798 - Pages: 4
... nature, and impact of crime in the Nation: the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). Each of these programs produces valuable information about aspects of the Nation’s crime problem. Because the UCR and NCVS programs are conducted for different purposes, use different methods, and focus on somewhat different aspects of crime, the information they produce together provides a more comprehensive panorama of the Nation’s crime problem than either could produce alone. The International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) began publishing information for the UCR Program in 1929, just two years after the IACP had established a committee to research the uniform reporting of crime statistics. Since September 1930, the FBI has administered the program and currently collects information on the following crimes: murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. Law enforcement agencies report arrest data for 21 additional crime categories. The UCR Program compiles data from monthly law enforcement reports or individual crime incident records transmitted directly to the FBI or to centralized state agencies that then report to the FBI. The program thoroughly examines each report it receives for reasonableness, accuracy, and deviations that may indicate errors. Large variations in crime levels may indicate......
Words: 417 - Pages: 2