JANE BROWN: This is Jane Brown and I am one of the consultants at PaTTAN King of Prussia and I am very happy to have our team here from Devereux and they're going to talk about PBS working in an
alternative setting. So this should be very interesting. I know a lot of us do work in alternative settings, so this will be a time to ask questions and hear how they've had some successes there --
here. You've probably had your instructions on your ACT 48 procedures. If you have any questions, I'd be happy to go over that in more detail. But basically at the end of the session, I'm going to
give you a code which we're asking for you to write onto this form. And then later, you will be sending that in on a -- like SurveyMonkey online. Okay. But I do -- if you have --do have questions,
I'd be happy to answer that anytime during the session. Okay. I would like to introduce our team here and they will tell you more about themselves and their project. But we have Dr. Barry McCurdy. We
also have Taylor Neill, and, Lisa Thomas, all from Devereux Day School. Also with us from The Lighthouse Academy, we have Lynn Pons and Jill Wujcik. I'm sorry, Jill if I distort your name. So I'll
let them introduce themselves further and we'll let them get started. Thank you.
BARRY MCCURDY: Okay. I'm going to get this all ready. I have 15 seconds to get this on, right? Okay.
JANE BROWN: He's timing it, [inaudible].
BARRY MCCURDY: Sorry, guys. Sorry. Okay. Everybody can hear me okay? Okay. Thank you. Okay. So I'm Barry McCurdy. I'm from Devereux Center for Effective Schools actually. And I have with me, she
already mentioned -- as Jane already mentioned Taylor Neill and Lisa Thomas. And we need to work hard to get our presentation done in half the time because Lighthouse Academy is presenting and we
have Lynn Pons and Wujcik -- Wujcik?
BARRY MCCURDY: Wujcik -- Jill Wujcik, we just met. So thank you. I'm sorry about that. Okay. So we're going to talk about doing School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in alternative education which
JANE BROWN: Wujcik.
actually hasn't been done much and some people would say, "Well, you know, why are we doing that? Don't we already -- shouldn't we already be doing that in alternative education?" What we want to do
today is give you an overview. We're not -- we're not actually going to give you an overview of the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support. We've figured you've already had that. You already have
plenty of that. So we're going to talk just briefly about School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in alternative settings. We're -- as part of Devereux then, we're going to talk about what we did and
how we did it at Devereux Day School. And we're going to make reference to intensifying the delivery of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support to make it more effective in those settings. We'll also
present some information on outcomes and we'll talk about future directions. Just give you a little bit of background on Lisa and I. Lisa and I are from the Devereux Center for Effective Schools
which is -- Devereux is a large behavioral healthcare organization. We are in 11 different states. We are headquartered in Pennsylvania and the Devereux Center for Effective Schools is part of the
Research Department of the Institute of Clinical and Professional Training and Research. And these were some of the projects that we've done over the past. We've been -- Devereux Center for Effective
Schools has been around since 1999. So these are some of the projects that we've engaged in. We've been doing School-Wide Positive Behavior Support since 1999. That was actually one of our very first
projects. And we really used to focus on urban education on urban schools. And then in 2010, we were asked to bring that work of doing School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in urban schools back into
Devereux. And we began that process by doing this work in Devereux Day School which is an alternative school for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Now we do it actually also across
all Devereux programs including our residential programs. So as we get into this work, I'm going to talk a little bit, first of all, about students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Many of
you have experience with this population of students, or currently or in the past, so there are some things that we -- that we know about this population of students. There are some well-documented
outcomes. They are not particularly good outcomes for this population. They have a high rate of dropping out of school. In fact, what we know is -- at about only 42% of this population graduate with
a diploma. They typically have lower grades than any other disability groups. Many of the students are arrested actually before leaving school and/or within a few years of leaving school. And of
those students who dropped out of school, about 70% of those students who dropped out of school are actually arrested. The post-school outcome for this population is also really poor. They typically
are unemployed. They don't have a lot of good social supports -- necessary social supports in the community or in their families. And there's a high rate of students that will engage in substance
abuse, alcohol -- drugs and alcohol abuse. And it's interesting if you ask -- so, you know, with those poor outcomes, why aren't we doing better with these students? Well actually, in fact, more than
two decades ago, this group, The Peacock Hill Working Group which is a group of researchers that were interested in students with emotional and behavioral disorders defined for us what are those
practices -- what are those important practices that we need to have in place if we're going to work effectively with this population of students. This information is more than 20 years old. And to
what extent are we engaging in those practices right now? Well, we're engaging in those practices to a minimum extent. We currently have pretty much of a research to practice gap that we are -- that
we continue to struggle with. And what we know to get these practices into place is that we have to train these practices to the professionals, but more than just training, we also have to follow up
with technical assistance -- ongoing and sustained technical assistance and coaching for this population. Now -- so that's one of the -- one of the -- one of the reasons why we like to think about --
that's okay. You can just -- anybody who comes up in the front, I always try to embarrass in some way, but no. You're good. Okay. So one of the ways to bridge that gap of research to practice is
actually School-Wide Positive Behavior Support, because School-Wide Positive Behavior Support emphasizes the teaching of practices to the professionals and School-Wide Positive Behavior Support also
has an emphasis on sustained technical assistance and coaching. It's also -- School-Wide Positive Behavior Support also places an emphasis on instruction. It's a strength-based approach. And there's
an emphasis on prevention and early intervention. We know that these are things that are necessary if you're going to work with this population of students. It is similar to a response intervention.
It's a multi-tiered systems approach similar to a response-to-intervention approach except that we're now talking about behavior. And it does compliment the impact of specialized instruction because
it's really focused on looking at -- very closely at behavior and the causes of that behavior. What do we know about School-Wide Positive Behavior Support for this population of students? We know a
little bit, okay? So in 2005, actually, there's a study that came out -- actually came out of Centennial School, if I have any folks from Centennial here or who have been connected to Centennial.
They actually didn't call it School-Wide Positive Behavior Support at the time. They actually just called -- just called it putting effective practices in place and making sure that those practices
were sustained through coaching and technical assistance. And what they saw when they put those practices into place were -- was a nice reduction in restraint and a nice reduction in seclusionary
timeout. More recently, Brandi Simonsen at Connecticut and some of her colleagues implemented School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in alternative school for students not only with emotional and
behavioral disorders, but actually for students with a variety of disabilities and they just focused on Tier 1 services. And they too saw a nice reduction in physical restraints and also a decrease
in elopements. Some colleagues of mine and myself became interested in School-Wide Positive Behavior Support and how do we get this done in these alternative settings. So we have an article out on
just -- actually on just doing that. And the recommendations were really to intensify the services of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support and these are some examples of ways that those services
could be intensified by establishing annual goals, targets that you want to reach by collecting data on behavioral incidents on -- even on points earned. We don't talk about -- typically about that
in public school or in an individualized school. More frequent teaching, we're going to talk about that. We're going to talk a lot about more frequent teaching today using an evidence-based social
skills curriculum and staff training in those effective practices and we're going to talk a lot about staff training today. Okay. So just a quick introduction to Devereux Day School. As I mentioned,
Devereux has been around for a hundred years. Devereux Day School has been around for a long time as well. It is an approved private school who serves students from kindergarten through 12th grade.
We have -- we currently serve students from five surrounding school districts. The enrollment at the time of this project was eighty to a hundred students. The primary classification is emotional
disturbance. They have secondary classifications. They also have mental health diagnoses; oppositional defiant disorder, ADHD, conduct disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, and many of the
students are involved in systems, both the delinquency and the dependency systems. Okay. So I'm going to -- and I should also mention that because we have two presentations here and we're trying to
rush to make sure that Lighthouse has their time to present as well, we're going to hold questions to the end. I'm going to turn this over to Taylor Neill now, one of our supervisors at Devereux Day
School. Here you go. Okay. You need the mic. Okay. Well, we'll have to apologize to Lighthouse Academy because this may take some time to switch.
TAYLOR NEILL: Try this. Still, on right? Okay. Thank you. Okay. Hi, everyone. So my portion of the presentation, I'll be discussing how we intensify the universal system of support more specifically
within Tier 1. So I'll be briefly describing how we intensify the teaming, the training, the teaching, the acknowledgment system, the corrective system and data-based decision making. So what we did
at Devereux Day School, we went from more of a reactive approach to things to a preventative approach. So we use to have behavior managers who would stay out in the hallway and deal with problematic
behaviors as they arose. And instead of doing it that way, we went to pushing them into the classroom as instructional support staff. That way they are supporting not only the teachers, but they are
supporting the students in the classroom which then put more of a focus on education. So instead of having the reactive approach, we went to the preventative approach and it seemed to be -- it worked
out really well for us. We also intensified our teaming structure by having all staff members at the Day School on a committee. We have the rewards committee, the correctors committee, the RTI
committee and parent-family community outreach committee. So each of those committees meet once a week and they have a team leader for their committee and the team leader then gives the information
that they've discussed in their committees to the PBIS leadership team who consists of the principal, school psychologist, coordinators, executive director, clinical director, PBIS coaches from CES
and they all meet two times per month. And then from there, all of that information that's gathered from the committees and then through the leadership committee is then disseminated to the Devereux
Day School staff. We really focused a lot on intensifying our staff professional development. We allowed a lot time -- on our Fridays we actually went down to half day Fridays where the students
would leave at a half day and we would focus the rest of our day during -- or doing professional staff development trainings. We also focus that time on committee meetings, floor meetings and
data-based decision making meetings. So all of the staff was involved in this entire process. We also had observation and feedback which was given based on the development trainings that we went
through. And supervisors and peers were both involved in those observations. And we also had classroom consolations. So to give you an idea of what our staff professional development training looks
like, in 2010 and 2011 if you can see just in October we had five half days and one full day of training. And we reviewed all of those things in October. And from there, what we would is we would
bring it back to the classroom. We would bring it back to the students and we would implement whatever we learned during those trainings in the classroom. So not only were we implementing it in the
classroom but we are also being observed by the peers and by the supervisors in the school. And this is an example in the top left corner, you can see this was -- the focus for this one was rules and
expectations. So the rules and the expectations are posted in all of the classrooms and the students are expected to know all of the rules, but the teacher is also expected to redirect, praise and
give proper warnings based on those classroom rules and expectations. So someone will come in and do this brief observation. And then from there, they would -- they were given a percentage, so based
on whether they gave an effective redirection or warning. And then if you can see in the bottom right corner, there's a summary sheet. So all of those skills, we had trainings on each one of those
skills, so giving rule -- or doing rules and expectations, transitions, praise ratio, specific praise, opportunities to respond and percent correct per minute. So however they performed that day was
put in that next column and then it was compared to the mastery level. So did they meet the mastery level, yes or no? And if they did not meet mastery level, then a goal will be set and a date would
be given for when that goal is supposed to be met. So like I said before, all of the -- all of the rules are posted throughout the building. This is an example of our cafeteria poster with all of the
expectations for being in the cafeteria and they're taught in the beginning of class and re-taught at the end of class. Behavioral lesson plans are also taught weekly, if you can see in the bottom
right-hand corners an example of one of our matrix for the cafeteria. So the teacher introduces the expectations, gives the positive examples and the non-examples. And those are built into the lesson
plans that the teachers do with their curriculum. And then things that are taught daily are modeling, role-playing, pre-corrections and alternative behaviors. So whenever that would occur, that's
when they know that they could teach that. This is an example of the point sheets that the students carry around and we go by a step system. So we go through the steps to success and we focus on
being responsible, safe, respectful. They also focus on their personal goal, their transition and they receive bonus points for self-management and homework. Now this is really a multipurpose tool
for us. It's for re-teaching behaviors. At the end of the period, the teacher reviews how many points the students earned. And it's a really good teaching tool and teaching moment for the teacher and
for the students in the classroom. So they're each involved in this process every period -- at the very end of each period. And then all of those points are then banked at the end of the day. They're
given a percentage of points and they can see in the bottom right-hand corner it says, "Did I earn my day?" And each step has a different criteria that goes along with different privileges and
restrictions for each step. We also intensified our acknowledgement system. So we really focused on responding to appropriate behaviors. We expect that our teachers have a four to one praise ratio in
the classroom. We also have our token economy. We have a school store in place where students can purchase activities, trips and little trinkets in our school store. Along with that feedback is
provided, like I said before with the point sheets, every period they earn that -- they earn those points and the feedback is given and then all of those points are able to spend throughout the
school. Each step has different privileges and different restrictions. So this is an example of our rewards committee puts out a calendar each month and they've really focused hard on getting a lot
of incentives involved in our school. So how can we -- I know you probably can't see all of it up there and I'll explain a couple in a second, but how can we really motivate our students to get on
these higher steps, you know, instead of just being satisfied with being on step two and step three? How can we really motivate them to get higher on the step system? So we offer ordering out Chinese
food and Wendy's, which they love. We also have fieldtrips that they have to be on a certain step to leave campus. So, we really focused hard on how can we really open the door to, you know, getting
these students more involved and, you know, being proud of being on a higher step. On the right-hand side is an example of one of our advertisements for going on a fieldtrip. So I'm not sure if you
guys can see it, but it was 200 points and I'm not sure if they have the step requirement on there but it's usually step three. And now that we're in the end of the year, we're really focusing on our
step fives and sixes. So we're really, you know, the students who have been working hard all year are being rewarded for that. So once a student has met the criteria for their step, they fill out a
student step petition which is then given to a program coordinator. So they go through and they list, have I, you know, received 85% of my points as my attendance, the requirement for that step and
they give it to the program coordinator along with a brief description as to why they think they should move up to the next step. The bottom right-hand corner is an example of one of our certificates
that we hand out during our reward ceremony on Fridays. So once a student moves up to the next step, they get a special certificate saying what step they've move up to. We've also intensified our
corrective system. So we really targeted our escape-maintained behaviors and we are provided a consistent hierarchy of corrective consequences. So our first step is the prevention through antecedent
manipulation, then a praise work in the school cafeteria, but I wouldn't be able to do that if I didn't, like, have a good behavior and I have point to move up on the system, so, like, it motivated
me to move up.
MALE: Well [inaudible] the walls, I pretty much know all of them now and I am motivated to get back to my public school so I could become a successfully young adult.
MALE: In the [inaudible] of me being in step six this year and I wasn't able to do that last year. But this year, I've actually been doing really good. And actually this year, I'm actually graduating
which I'm final--which I'm finally doing it now and I'm really proud of that.
FEMALE: I use PBIS everyday in my class lessons. I really like it because when I want to get a child who's off task, on task. All I have to do is praise a child that is on task and the child who is
off task will then get back on task because I think it's helpful to--for classroom management. There's that non-need of the combative verbalization towards staff and student.
MALE: I think the PBIS steps to success system has helped in a lot of ways. One of the best ways is it bring consistency to the classroom. We go over rules a lot and so students know exactly what is
expected of them in each class, in each period. In order their points, they know what they have to do and they know that if they don't do that, they won't earn their points. And because we have a
points-driven system, everything has value. So if a student wants to go to the school store, they have to earn points. If they want to go on a trip, they have to spend points. If they want to do
incentive periods, they have to spend points. So points become very important to the student.
MALE: The system has taught me to have a little more class structure and what works best and best practices for our clients. And two, I guess it gives me some classroom management tools that I use.
FEMALE: I've been with the Day School for longer than anybody else in this building. But in the past, I think students-- and with working with the students that we deal, sometimes they don't want me
in the classroom and they don't want to do any work. And I think in previous years, it was very easy for them to just be walking the hallways. If you are normally a very good student, I have a
student Kyle, who on any average day is really well-behaved or whatever, but every once in a while, he has a bad day. In previous years, when you had that bad day, no matter what it was, you ended up
getting a major infraction and you got your level dropped and almost never could get back to a high level again. And with this new system, even though kids are -- they don't lose any major ground
when they're on a day-to-day basis. I think it gives them an opportunity to say, "Hey, okay, I didn't do a good job today, but I can do a better job tomorrow." And we are keeping them in the
classroom and they are hopefully learning more because of that instead of being wandering through the hallways.
FEMALE: I would recommend PBIS to other schools because it's something that can be tailored to your own specific needs and that's exactly what we did here at the Day School. We tweaked it a little bit
just so it would fit with our children. So in your institution, you could tweak it to fit in with your classroom.
FEMALE: I would recommend this program because at first, of course, I was very skeptical. I did not see how it could possibly work. But when it's in its true form and you've got all the support that
you need, it's a great program because the students know where they can -- where -- who they can rely on and what they can do and how they can achieve and I've seen a lot of successes in the past
couple of years that we've been doing this. So yes, I would definitely recommend it for other people. [VIDEO ENDS]
LISA THOMAS: We had wanted to bring some students and staff with us and weren't able to accomplish that given the distance from where the school is located. So our technology teacher created this
little video for us and I hope it was a nice introduction for you to see, you know, where we're coming from and that this can work in alternative education settings with kids with emotional behaviors
disorders and at the kids are they all in that red top Tier of the -- of the, you know, the pyramid that it can be successful for them as well as for the staff. So I get the opportunity to share with
you how we've intensified our secondary system of supports. I would love to share all of the wonderful things we're doing around here to supports and how we're intensifying that. But because of the
video and everything, I don't have so much time. But I do want to point out that we've intensified a secondary support at two levels. One level being the individual student and that is where we have
our students refer through an initial line of inquiry process. And out of that initial line of inquiry process, we develop individualized interventions and contingencies that might be on a more
intensified check in, check out system since all of the kids in the school already have point cards. They would have a little bit more of an intensified check in, check out system or they might have
peer coaching and peer modeling. The other way we've intensified secondary supports is at the classroom level or at, what we call, our floor level or our, kind of, grade group level where we also
take our teams through a problem solving process. And out of that typically comes a group contingency or other different interventions or supports. Given the time that I have today, I wanted to
really focus on some of the individualized supports that we're doing at Tier 2, so I'm going to share with you our initial line of inquiry process and how we've adapted that Devereux Day School. We
love our flowcharts and graphics in PBIS, so we would be remiss if we did not have one that would show how students would get from Tier 1 to Tier 2 to Tier 3. I'm not going to have time to go through
this in great detail, but one of the things I do want to highlight that students are referred to Tier 2 typically through our Friday floor meetings where we have grade group meetings. As Taylor
mentioned, we have half day Fridays and that's where a teacher would refer a student and raise a concern based on the data that we've been collecting, typically the office discipline referral data.
So a student could be referred at that Friday floor meeting for either two reasons. One would be an increasing trend in minor or major problem behavior. Another could be an unusual event, so unusual,
just out of the blue kind of change in intensity or frequency. So a student might have like a very severe property destruction and so we might put a -- we might go through to the ILI process and put
an intervention in place in order to address that extreme event and kind of prevent them from relapsing or engaging in more severe problem behavior. So it's really two kind of entry points, an
increasing trend in problem behavior or some sort of unusual extreme event that would require us to intervene. The initial line of inquiry process, really what it is, it's kind of like a indirect
informal simple FBA if you were. It involves getting teams to think functionally, so function-based thinking and it brings a group together, a team together and we have basically, kind of, two grade
groups. We have the elementary and then we have the high school and the elementary and middle are kind of combined so we call them our lower school and then we have our high school. So everyone on
the lower school would meet to get together to do the problem solving process and everyone on the high school would meet to get together to do this problem solving process. And now the initial line
of inquiry process, you would really look at the target problem behaviors and you would -- the goal would be to identify the function of what we think that target problem behavior is. The difference
with initial line of inquiry is that we're not getting in the classroom and actually doing observations to collect data. That's why I said it's indirect. You're really using your existing records and
interviews of the people that are working with the students. You're evaluating it more indirectly to identify the behavior and the different determinants of that. And out of the initial line of
inquiry process, that's where our Tier 2 individualized supports come from. So we don't just put someone in the check in, check out process or into the peer coaching process. They go through the
initial line of inquires kind of like a gate and then that says which kind of track they would go on or what kinds of support they would receive. I included in the handout, if anyone downloaded it,
our old version of the initial line of inquiry form that we've been using now for three years at Devereux Day School. But we recently updated it, because Devereux is a large organization. We're
actually in eleven states and we're going to be systematizing this process across our entire organization. So we just revised this, because we have training on Friday with Devereux Georgia and
Devereux Arizona, which are two residential treatment facilities for them to start adopting this process at their centers. One of the things you'll notice at the top of the initial line of inquiry
form is a statement of strengths. We start strengths based in thinking positively about our students. So we have everyone try to identify some strengths for those students. The next piece is really
-- with a goal of identifying what's the target problem behavior, so operationally defining that, what is the current level of that problem behavior based on your existing data. And then once you
identified that target behavior, for that one single target behavior, what are the slow triggers, those setting events, what are the fast triggers, the antecedents, what are the maintaining
consequences of that target behavior and what is the perceived function of that target behavior. Once we have that information down, then we would go through developing a summary or a hypothesis
statement and really just summarizing everything that we have identified previously and then quickly get to intervention planning with the goal of coming up with interventions to prevent the
triggers, to teach alternative or replacement behaviors, and then consequence interventions for responding and kind of reinforcing those alternative, and a functionally equivalent pro-social
behaviors, and then from -- and then for responding to when the target problem behavior occurs or removing reinforcement from those target problem behaviors. And then on the back, we just identify
the logistics of those interventions. And then the next part is progress monitoring, so listing our baseline data, setting a goal, saying when are we going to review this data and what -- when we do
review it, what does the progress monitoring data look like and then what are we going to do with this. Are we going to continue this intervention? Are we going to modify it, or have they done such a
great job that we can discontinue it or is it not working and we need to discontinue it and try something else? So you could see it's pretty -- it's meant to be a pretty quick process that could be
completed hopefully within a 15-30 minute meeting so that you can quickly leave that meeting and get to an intervention and put an intervention in place hopefully the next day or, you know, if you
meet on a Friday, like we do, hopefully come Monday morning, we can, you know, start an intervention for a kid who is struggling and is at risk for engaging in more significant problem behavior. We
do want to progress monitor the intervention. I will tell you, this has been an area that we've struggled with a little bit and that's going to be a huge focus for us next year, is really focusing on
progress monitoring these Tier 2 interventions. I did -- this is actually real data. They identified the student as John Doe. But one of the things I do want to point out is that sometimes when we
implement these interventions, there will be like that novelty effect. We'll have like that spike of response, but then they'll test their limits and then they'll be that, you know, falling off and
then they'll realize, "Okay. You know what, maybe this is good and you're not going to budge on this and, you know," and then they'll respond. So you really need to remind your teams to be patient as
they're implementing these interventions and not think, "Well, we should just stop doing it right now." You know, you need to give it, you know, at least, you know, a two week time period to see the
trend of the data, so each of these is a different day. There's nine days there. So you could see if we just stopped it after a week and said, "Oh, this is a failure," you know, well it took two
weeks for him to, you know, kind of respond to the interventions. So this was one thing I wanted to point. So now that I'm done talking about Tier 2 interventions, I get to also talk to you about
some of our outcome data since we love our data in PBIS. And at Devereux Day School, like most of our schools, we look at data for two purposes. We monitor our implementation fidelity and we use a
variety of tools to do that and we also monitor our effectiveness. So we look at our outcomes to see what impact our school PBIS system as a whole is having for our students and staff. So I'm only
going to have the opportunity to share a few pieces of data with you really quickly. In terms of implementation data, we monitor the effectiveness of our universal system using the school-wide
evaluation tool. Devereux Day School started implementing PBIS in the fall of 2010. And surprisingly, by that spring, they've reached fidelity on the set and that's really impressive for an
alternative ed setting to be able to implement the universal system with high fidelity within a one year time period. They've been able to maintain that fidelity last year and as well again this
year. So last year we received our banner from the forum and this year we received our little badge that we're going to stick on -- stick on our banner. So they've been doing a really nice job
implementing with high fidelity in an alternative ed setting. And as Taylor pointed out, when we do professional development trainings, we do a follow up where we do observation performance feedback.
We've done this in several ways. We've done this by having supervisors, like Taylor, observe, myself as a -- as a consultant observed and we've also had peers observe each and provide each other with
feedback. But we do monitor this on a quarterly basis at the coordinator or like combined with the consultant level to see how PBIS is working in the classroom. So what's the fidelity of
implementation in the classroom level? What we want to see is more green than red, because green is mastery and red is below mastery. So I'm just going to point out one -- the first, kind of section,
for you. That's teaching of rules and expectations. So are the rules and expectations posted, is the teacher praising, providing a redirection prompt or warning around them? And then can I randomly
pull a student out of class and ask them to tell me what the rules are for the classroom and they know them? So you could see, the first quarter, so right in the beginning of the school year, we were
at about, you know, 50% mastery. So we took that data and we really focused on the teachers at our next Friday training and said, "Look, you know, we need to boost our teaching of these expectations.
Here are strategies that you can use to teach these expectations in our classroom." And then we followed up the next quarter and we were at a hundred percent mastery. So that's an ideal example of
how we would like it to work. As you could see, it ebbed and flowed, you know, we -- you know, we're still working to get to mastery in some areas consistently, but this has been a nice process for
us of monitoring implementation using the set at the school-wide, but then also focusing at the classroom level. And this is like, you know, another way we've intensified it, because it's not enough
for these kids to just focus on the school-wide system. We really need to focus on intensity in the classroom system of the daily teaching and practicing of PBIS. As Taylor shared with you, we have
office discipline referral forms, so I'm just going to briefly share some data from you. I don't have this year's data, but the blue line is from our first year of implementation and the red line is
from last year. And as you could see, for the blue, we've had a -- you know, we had the initial testing of the system from September to November and then we had that nice drop off and decrease. And
the nice thing with the red, there has been a consistent decrease compared to last year with PBIS in the number of major problem behaviors and these are kids with, you know, that typically engage in
a lot problem behaviors. So these are some really nice data for us to show a nice decrease and we've been able to maintain that this year as well. One of the data we're most proud of is our Emergency
Safety Intervention Data or Restraint Data, if you were. And as you could see, pre-implementation, there is actually a very significant increase in the number of restraints that were occurring in a
school. A lot of reactive management was occurring. So that was before we implement PBIS. The first year we implemented 2010, significant drop off and then the next year was even lower and this year,
it's even lower. So it's been really positive for us that we've been able to switch from that reactive management to more of that prevention and prevent hands-on on kids and really focus on using
more positive strategies instead of more reactive strategies. So in conclusion, what have we learned about implementing school-wide PBIS in an alternative ed setting? One of the main things we
learned is allocate resources to prevention. So if you have people who were meant to be those behavior managers, catching kids in the hallway, you need to put them in a classroom and focus more on
prevention and more proactive approaches. Staff involvement, a lot of this staff might be a little jaded from over the years of dealing with these kids. The more you involve your staff, the greater
buy-in you have and the easier it'll be to maintain your program over the year. So involving staff on those committees has been really crucial for us. Staff professional development, need to boost
that quantity of when it's occurring. You also need to boost the quality. You can't just do that train and hope, which most professional development is, where they just call someone in and say,
"Here, train us on this topic." And then they never get any follow through on that topic. So we really need to focus on training a lot but then having that follow through with that observation
performance feedback. And then obviously, looking at data -- looking at data all the time and then really, for us focusing on that progress monitoring of those different Tier 2 supports in
particular. So for us, for our future steps at the universal level, we're really going to work on systematizing those observation performance feedbacks and having peers observe each other more and
really working on getting that process up and running a little bit more. We really realize that we need to focus on training of new staff. We've had staff -- as one of the staffs said who's been
there longer than anybody else, so, she knows the system very well but when we have a new staff coming in, they're not as up to speed. So really, pairing up staff with existing staff for more
mentorship opportunities. At the secondary and tertiary level, we really need to focus more on progress monitoring in those Tier 2 interventions. We developed a peer coaching intervention but we
haven't really been able to get that up and running too much this year. We only have one student who went through that, so, we're really trying to expand that for next year. And we would like to
bring prevent Tier 3 and 4 to Devereux Day School as another model for function based assessments. So if you have any questions, please feel free to go to our website. You can contact any of us at
Devereux but now, I'm going to turn it over to the folks at Lighthouse Academy. And then we can all field questions at the end. So thank you so much for your participation and patience. Did you want
to use the clicker?
LYNN M. PONS: Yeah. Sure.
LISA THOMAS: Yup.
LYNN M. PONS: Can I click this? Yeah. No.
LISA THOMAS: Okay.
LYNN M. PONS: Too many things to carry. Okay. Good afternoon, everyone. My name is Lynn Pons. I'm a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and I'm here with Jill Wujcik, one of the teachers from our
Lighthouse Academy. It's in Northeastern Pennsylvania. We're a small school but we're similar, very similar to Devereux in the model that we're using. We've actually been heavily influenced by
Centennial School near Allentown. Today, I'd like to -- oh, you know what? That would be great. Thank you. I just realized that I need to switch this to the slideshow. Okay. So thank you. Okay.
Today, we'd like to just share with you some of the intensive interventions that we've developed to work with the most difficult students. We're hoping that you can take these ideas back to your
districts and use them to support your Tier 3 students. Okay. Thank you. Let me just acknowledge that I know if you do this well, then, there really will be no need for the program like the
Lighthouse Academy and we will, in effect, be out of jobs. But that truly is our aim. We know that there will always be a need for special educators like ourselves but we're hoping that we'll be able
to eliminate the need for removing students from their home schools. Thank you. Okay. So I'll start by telling you a little bit about our alternative setting. The Lighthouse Academy is a center based
nonresidential public school offering fulltime emotional support to students from Grades K-5. We're currently serving 26 students in three classrooms so we are a small school. We have fully adopted
PBIS since our inception in 2009, so, this is the fourth year of our program. And we've developed a token economy system replete with a school store much like Devereux's. As I have previously
mentioned, our ultimate goal is to prepare students for a successful transition back to their home schools but I'll go into -- we have a very specialized transition process that I'll go into in-depth
at the end of the presentation. A little bit about the services we offer, most students enter our school with a positive behavior support plan. If a functional behavioral assessment has not been
conducted when we have an in-take, we'll conduct it at that time. What we're looking for is what's causing those problem behaviors, what the antecedents are and what consequences are following those.
We are able to use a second step curriculum. Is anyone in the room using a second step curriculum? Okay. Yeah. So if you're familiar with the curriculum, what it does is it trains students in the
areas of empathy, problem solving, impulse control and anger management and most recently, they've updated their curriculum to include skills for learning. So it teaches students about listening with
attention and focusing. We also use their program that's called Steps for Success which is an anti-bullying program and also a curriculum called Teaching Touching Safety, which we use with our
youngest students, the K through second graders. That occurs daily in a social skills group with myself. And then we also offer our music therapy to our students. They have that once a week. We have
a yoga class that takes place once a week, which really does help our students with impulse control problems. And we have monthly fieldtrips, and I know you have those out based trips too. Many
alternative programs look at us with wide eyes when we tell them that we take our students into the community once a month, but we really do train them on expectations what we -- what we expect when
they're out in the community, and we've had very good results. In fact, we took our students to a pumpkin farm in October and one of the staff told us that we were the best behaved school that had
ever come to Roba's Farm. Okay. Thank you. So what type of behaviors are your Tier 3 students exhibiting? What are you seeing? Is there any -- anyone? Aggression, physical aggression and verbal
aggression. What else?
AUDIENCE MEMBER: They like to leave.
LYNN M. PONS: Right. Elopement from the school, at least from the area. Okay. Anything else?
AUDIENCE MEMBER: Some drug use.
LYNN M. PONS: Yes. Okay. Some drug use. Uh-hmm. Noncompliance, things like that. Okay. Could you -- these are our Lighthouse students. They're your Tier 3 students. They're just the ones who didn't
make it in the regular setting with the interventions that were offered. We see the same behaviors, only they're amplified. So by the time that they're moved to a more restrictive environment, what
we see is that they have feelings of failure. I will never succeed at any school I'm placed in. They have feelings of rejection. Everyone just wanted to get rid of me. They have feelings of hatred
for their past teachers and administrators and they have now transferred those to the current staff. The -- also their problem behaviors were oftentimes reinforced in their previous school setting,
so, when the previous school saw physical aggression, they were sent home or they were suspended for elopement. We have one student who was able to -- after he would have a tantrum and then fall a
sleep for an hour, he would be able to then play a game with his school councilor in her office. These kind of consequences are all rewards for Tier 3 students. And as you know, these students are
already academically behind and then they're further behind after these consequences. So how can you reach these students who have this level of baggage from their previous placement? Our answer is
the Steps to Success Program. And I'm going to have Jill come up to tell a little bit about it but it sounds much like Devereux's program for stepping up. Okay.
JILL WUJCIK: Okay.
LYNN M. PONS: Jill, just hold that.
JILL WUJCIK: Okay. Sure. He like -- that's a good job. Okay. Hi, everyone. First, I'd like to give a little bit of a background of our Steps to Success System. This is -- we're finishing up our second
year of incorporating it at our school. When we found that we had fidelity at Tier 1 and Tier 2, we had established the three expectations which were be respectful, be responsible and be safe. These
expectations were posted through out the whole school. All the teachers incorporated lessons where we would actually take the students and we would -- we would teach them the three B's and how to do
it. So we would go in all school settings in recess, at lunch and we would practice them. We established a Check-in and Check-out system for all students. Some of the students get it with a preferred
staff member. We do -- we do this using a daily point sheet. When we teach all of our rules, we do it -- all of the classrooms do it daily for 20 minutes. So every morning when the students come in,
for 20 minutes, we do a daily review of rules. And we will show you a sneak little peek of the younger students doing their rules review in the morning. Oh, wait. I'd have to put this by it, don't I?
I have to put this by it?
LYNN M. PONS: Where did that -- where did that video go? I had it minimized. I put it in the [inaudible]
JILL WUJCIK: Does anybody have any questions while we're waiting for the video?
AUDIENCE MEMBER: What grades do you have?
JILL WUJCIK I teach the kindergarten through 2nd but we go up to fifth Grade. Anybody else? Did you find it? Okay. So, I just put that disc.
[VIDEO BEGINS] FEMALE: Okay. Mr. James. What is one of our B's?
JAMES: Be safe.
FEMALE: Be safe. And James, how can we be safe when we are in school?
JAMES: Not running out of buildings.
FEMALE: Very good. We don't run out of the building. And James, what happens if we run out of the building?
JAMES: You'll go on calling a cop.
FEMALE: Very good. We will call the police. And James, will you earn points on your point sheet? No. And will you make your day at the end of the day? No. Very good. Logan, how else can we be safe?
LOGAN: To keep all personal belongings together.
FEMALE: Very good. We have to make sure that we keep all of our personal belongings to ourselves. Very good. Jeremiah, how else can we be safe?
FEMALE: How can we be safe?
JEREMIAH: What was the question?
JEREMIAH: Don't throw anything at the fish tank.
FEMALE: We don't throw anything at the fish tank and what else, Jeremiah?
JEREMIAH: Hands and feet to ourselves.
FEMALE: Very good. We have to make sure we keep our hands and feet to ourselves. Brandon, how else can we be safe?
BRANDON: Personal space.
FEMALE: Very good. And Brandon, how will I know where my personal space is?
BRANDON: Put your hand out in front of you and you do this.
FEMALE: Very good. If you're unsure where your personal space is you just put your hands out in front of you and it's the area around you. Very good, Brandon. Ashley, how else can we be safe? What
kind of feet? What kind of feet do we use?
ASHLEY: How can we [inaudible]
FEMALE: What kind of feet do we use in order to be safe?
ASHLEY: Walking feet. Unless we're -- unless we're in the gym where we can run.
FEMALE: Very good. We use our walking feet except when we're in the gym where we can run. Very good. Justin, how else can we be safe?
JUSTIN: We use this way.
FEMALE: How can we be safe? We have to make sure we what? Stay where?
JUSTIN: In our seats.
FEMALE: In our seats. Very good. And how can we sit in our seats, Justin?
JUSTIN: On our bottom.
FEMALE: On our bottom. And where are our feet?
FEMALE: On the floor. Very good. Logan, how else can we be safe?
LOGAN: To? [VIDEO PAUSED]
LYNN M. PONS: I just want to point out that you'll notice our pair of educator is walking around the classroom giving reinforcements that are called bonus Bs and they're worth a point each. She's also
giving specific feedback on why they're receiving that bonus B. I'm just going to play this video for one more minute because we mentioned about our step system but you could see that bulletin board
in the background. Okay.
[VIDEO RESUMES] LOGAN: Don't go out of the classroom, going out of the classrooms [inaudible] [VIDEO ENDS]
LYNN M. PONS: Uh-hmm. No? Oh, nobody could hear it? Oh. Okay. Okay. So we'll just stop it there. Okay. I think that was fun. Thank you very much. Oh, that's right.
JILL WUJCIK: What? Slideshow. So after we established this, we still had some students that were still struggling. In fact, in 2010 and 2011, we had 558 ODRs, Office Disciplinary Referrals. So the
step -- our step system allowed us to provide more -- oh gosh -- more reinforcement and motivation for our Tier 1 and Tier 2 -- Tier 2 students and it gives us a system to easily identify and monitor
our Tier 3 students who needed more support. It provides us with a clear way to let the districts, the parents and the students know on how they're progressing and their progress towards
transitioning back to their home school. So it worked. In 2011 and 2012, our ODRs dropped 16% and then this current school year, we dropped 32%. Okay. So we're going to flip over. This slide is our
Step to Success bulletin. Each classroom has this bulletin in their room. And as you can see, it's a little bit difficult, but it has each student on there. They get to pick what they want to be and
we put their face on them. And this way, they can see exactly where they are in the steps. Everybody enters on step one, that's our orientation stage. Then they move up towards step two, three, and
step four is our final step which then we discuss the transition process. As they move up the steps, they have higher expectations. The two students that you will see on the side, those are two
students that successfully transitioned this year back to their home school. Okay. You can switch the slides. Making my day, a step one student to make their day needs 10 days where they don't have
any red flag behaviors. Red flag behaviors are physical aggression and their elopement. A step two -- yeah. A step two, three or four student has a certain percentage that they need to earn on their
daily point sheet, very similar to what you guys have the daily point sheet. So when you're on step two, three, and four you need a specific percentage. When you're on step two, three and four you
need to have 40 made days. So it doesn't need to be 40 consecutive days, 40 made days in order to move up to that next step. And how we get the kids to get motivated? It's very similar to how you
guys said with their points and on certain steps is how they earn things. Okay. The next slide. This is our privilege -- I know it's really small, so I'll just go through some of the points on it. A
step one student has basically just the basic privileges. They get to go to the school store and get one item and they can attend the weekly awards ceremony. A step two student, here, she may now
attend the fieldtrips and they receive one relaxation room pass per week. A step three student can now purchase snacks at lunch and at breakfast and they can buy two items at the school store. And
when you're on step four, you have a pass to the vending machine and you can serve as an assistant at our award ceremonies that we do weekly. Okay. Next slide, thanks. This pyramid just breaks down
basically to the Lighthouse Pyramid, so it's a little bit different than the one that everyone sees. We have 17% of our students are on step one. We have 26% are on step two and 56% of our students
are on steps three and four. Okay. This is Logan. Don't worry. He has made it to step four and he will be transitioning this coming fall, but he knows what it's like to have a bad day. If a student
depend -- whichever step they're on, if a student has three days in a row where they have had red flags, which is the physical aggression or the elopement, they will then move down a step. Okay.
Switch to next slide. But don't worry. They always have the chance to step back up. In order to step back up, they need to make four out of the five days. So when they step back up, the days that
they have already made they don't lose. And the way they track this is the students keep a made-day calendar in their desks and at the end of the day if they make their day, they get a sticker and
that's how they are able to track it and then we are able to track it. There are of course some students who do have struggling to step back up and who are -- who just can't step up. So when that
happens, we have to put in some Tier 3 supports. Okay. Our Tier 3 supports are plan and individualized. The planning intervention takes place at a staffing meeting. Staffing meetings are structured
team meetings. They consist of the parent, the home school district, the teacher, sometimes the school nurse, our social worker, Lynn, usually, it will have one of our administration there and then
sometimes if need be, we have the County Caseworkers there. The team reviews all of their SWIS data and we put together a plan to implement. Okay, next slide. We have had staffings that resulted in
families moving to higher level of mental health treatment. Type 50 services for home-based functional family therapy. We have scheduled sometimes -- we call them after school studies. When a student
is missing a lot of work at school, they stay for an after school study hall. And then we have also had parents that like to take the PBIS home. So they'll ask us to make them a point sheet and
they'll use it as a reward system at home and they might get to watch a certain TV show at night or they'll get a special treat. So we do have quite a few parents that do take some of the stuff we do
at school at home, which works out very, very well. Next slide. Next we have the transition which Lynn will talk about.
LYNN M. PONS: Okay. Thank you. Okay. So we're looking to transition a student once they've maintained step four behavior for a significant period of time. Usually, typically around 40 days we're
contacting the district and letting them know that the student will be ready to transition shortly. We hold an IEP meeting and we also make arrangements to visit the home school district with the
family and myself. I'm then able to follow that student for 90 days to make sure that the supports are in place and that the student is successful. I then help the district prepare any interventions
that they might need back at the school. The major problem for us is that we're often helping students transition to schools that are not PBIS schools, therefore students who might have been
excelling with us then have an regression and a resurgence in those problem behaviors. That's, of course, where you all come in. So if you're able to provide those Tier 3 students with the support
they need, then, they'll continue to build on their successes that they had with us and hopefully those behaviors can remain extinct. Okay. Thank you. So finally, we just wanted to leave you with a
little to-do list. If you're kind of keeping notes on what you want to do back at your home districts, what we would recommend is rewarding incremental progress so that a student knows, you know, I
may not be able to be aggression-free for a month but I did it for 10 days and now I stepped up. And so also, that they get rewards and privileges for meeting those goals. We also recommend holding
students accountable for the work missed. So rather than sending them home early that they're kept longer or they're kept back from recess to complete work missed. We also recommend coordination
between the school and the mental health team and also extending that PBIS to the home setting. When parents are interested, there's many books now out on how to provide positive behavior support in
the home. And like we said, we help parents to kind of formulate a program for their home with point sheets. So, now, we just want to open it up to questions both for us and Devereux and if they are
any. Thank you, though, for your attention. Any questions? Sure.
AUDIENCE MEMBER: We're going to talk about this, please, and then you'll have to repeat it.
AUDIENCE MEMBER: Ma'am, this is for rewards. I have a few questions though. Great point sheet. I liked ---- loved it. Lots of great titles that's on there. How do you -- how do you track that? Do you
do it with just a system or do you just put them in? How do you track them in?
TAYLOR NEILL: So the question was the point sheet, how do we track the points that are then logged based on what they earn that day? And that's a great question. We've kind of let the teachers decide
how they want to track the points. However, they have to track each of those categories. So they have to track how the student was in all the areas of being respectful, safe and responsible but as
well as their IEP goal that's also monitored on there. So we've provided them with a spreadsheet that they track. Usually, their instructional support staff does it and they monitor how many points
Даже в такие моменты ему удавалось сохранять ясность рассудка. - А вы не думали о том, чтобы позвонить президенту. Стратмор кивнул: - Думал. Но решил этого не делать. Сьюзан так и подумала.